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© Altantsetseg Purevdulam Lecturer, Mongolian National University 1 Universitetskaya St., Mongolia 14201, Ulaanbaatar E-mail: pvrevdulam@gmail.com

Issue of child registration is not included in law of national registration of Mongolia. Rather, in article 5 of law of national registration of Mongolia, there are followings: birth registration, determination of fatherhood, adoptions, changing of family name (father/mother), first name, death registration, permanent and temporary residence reg­istration and movement of people in country.

Author who are of this study assumed that these registrations can be include in child registration. Otherwise these registra­tions more relates with child registration from civil and population registration. Pur­pose of this study to confirm that child registration in civil registration able to protect child’s right for legal regulation. Research framework of this study illustrated relation­ship between child registration and child rights. First step of this study is to analyze law regulation with child registration and child’s right.

Keywords: civil registration; child; child registration; child's rights; law regulation.

Both of regulators and researches supposed that civil registration is basic issue of independent country. Every country has population, land and govern­ance, consequently, they lead their citizens through governance power accord­ing to law. Firstly, each country makes civil registration to determine popula­tion’s structure and location. Previously, under civil and population registra­tion, government was make census of population, issuing of identification card, movement, birth registration, adoptions, marriage, registration of foreign citi­zens and registration of non-immigration people (Davaanyam, 2015). Last two decades, importance of civil registration service increased, then, both of citi­zens and non-citizens try to register to protect their all property by government. In article 5 of law of national registration of Mongolia, there are followings: birth registration, determination of fatherhood, adoptions, changing of family name (father/mother), first name, death registration, Permanent Residence reg­istration and movement of people in country.

Although issue of child registra­tion is not included in law of national registration and law of national registra­tion of Mongolia in detail, and, birth, determining of father, adoptions, chang­ing of given name, family name, death, Permanent and temporary Residence registration and movement of people are more related with child registration [1].

All the Births in capital, city and province of Mongolia must be registered within 15 days of the baby birth, and, in far way place, it must be done within 30 days. Registration of new born baby birth can be done at local register office of the area where the baby birth took place, the hospital where the new bom baby birth took place.

This is one of civil registration and it has included in 17th article of law of civil registration of Mongolia. According to theory, determination of father­hood classified two type in practice, and, new and old. New it is done if couple did not register their marriage in registration office. Old determination of fa­therhood is done when couple wanted to change their child’s birth certificate if birth registration is recorded by his/her mother in national civil registration system.

This is one of child-rearing form in family. Adoption is done to protect child’s interest. Otherwise, it means that any child able to live in better life en­vironment than previous life environment. This law regulation has been set up in 54 to 62 article of family law. Person who wants to adopt a child, he/she has to rule a requirement in according to relevant law. This requirement includes ability of finance, and interest to having child-rearing, and beliefs. Side of adoption applies to governance office of district. If child who has 7 years-old, he/she can send his/her application about to do registration of adoption.

Death Certificate is a certified copy which records the Circumstances of the Death of a person during his/her Death. Death Certificate is an official docu­ment which certifies the registration of the Death.

Death Certificate ensures the registration of the Death. In law, people who is father, or mother, his/her rela­tives. permanent and temporary residence registration. Although this registra­tion regulation is in law of national registration of Mongolia, it is similar with household registration. It has been confirmed by household registration in pri­mary unit of administrative office.

Basis of law regulation of this registration appears from law of unites Mon­golian territory and administrative (2006) and law of civil registration (1999) for Mongolia. According to these law, governor of administrative primary unit has right to register and create recoding of population ad census, and notify movement of citizens according to relevant act. This registration is recorded according to act that government constituted. It is classified internal and exter­nal and it depends how many days he/he wants to move to another place.

Above registration types are made by general authority for state registration of Mongolia thus, it is created official statistical information. Consequently, based on child registration and its official statistical information, child’s rights and individual interest can be protected according to constitutional law (1992), law of child’s right (2016), family law (1999) and law of child protection (2016). According to these laws, administrative organizations have to protect child’s right [2].

Most of researchers suppose that analysis of child registration has les im­portance and theoretical and practical implication if child registration is sepa­rately studied. Author of this study suggested that Child’s registration is im­portant to protect child’s right For literature review, following: Co-authors who are A.Purevdulam “Child’s right and child protection, (2011)” M. Munkhbat “child’s organizations”, “Basic content of child national and internation organi­zation related with child’s right, Ts.Davkharbayar and A. Dugarmaa “Custo­dy”, B. Ulanaabaatar “Adoptions”, D.Khuyg “ Representation for child”,

A.

Dugarmaa issue of protect child’s right when child’s family are living sepa­rately and how to protect child’s place of residence”, B.Temuulen’’property right of child”, C.Bolormaa “Child’s labour”, B.Amarbayasgalan “ term of rape against to child”, “Issue of child who violated law”, D.Badam “Issue of protec­tion of children who are non-adult” , thus above legal studies are using in Mon­golian law universities’ curriculum. This study based on these legal studies.

This study purposed to check how does child registration influenced to child’s right. According to this purpose, author analyzed law regulation of child’s rights based on child’s registration.

After birth registration baby has name then, recording of birth is created statistical information. Consequently, child who has birth registration can take service and protect from government. Otherwise, child who has birth certifi­cate, he/she able to provide as service of health, insurance, benefits from the state. Importantly, child’s parents must to inform Permanent and temporary Residence registration to primary unit of administrative organization of state. Issue of Permanent and temporary Residence registration set up in law of ad­ministration of population and territory (2006) and statistical law of Mongolia (1997). According to above laws, governors of primary unit of administration and territory must to note population registration and create statistical second­ary data. In child right law, child is citizen of the state, and if child is foreigner or non-citizen, this issue is decide according to law of Mongolia and interna­tional contract (arctic 5.1). In this case, governors have to record this registra­tion and, inform relevant information to authority agency of statistical organi­zation. Generally, every child has following rights to live:

• The Right to live in a family environment

• The Right to a Stable, Loving and Nurturing Environment

• The Right to Healthcare & Nutrition

• The Right to Clean Water, Electrical Power, and Safe Environment.

• The Right to a Quality Education

• The Right to Equal Opportunities

• The Right to Guidance from a Caring Adult

Importantly, the right to be protected from abuse and neglect (article of 5.2 law of child’s right) is focused on researcher’s study. This right means that eve­ry child will receive effective protection from harmful influences, abuse (phys­ical & mental), neglect, corporal punishment and all forms of exploitation. Ad­ditionally, every child is provided opportunities to make complaints to an iden­tifiable third party. Those caring for children are trained and given appropriate discipline techniques. Child’s birth and permanent residence registration are help to protect children from abuse and neglect. More detail, if any child will meet with any abuse and neglect, he/she able to inform her/his place of perma­nent residence as soon possible. Thus, child who met with abuse and neglect, and he/she able to protect as government quickly than non-registered child. Se­riously, some children cannot live in a family environment; in this case, officer who has to work for them should check their birth and permanent and tempo­rary residence registration. Also officer’s duty is to see child live with whom. In addition, if child’s parents made divorce, officer who is working for children must to check how about child’s registration and live with whom. Otherwise, in this case, child can be having any risk when child is living with only his/her father, or only his/her mother, or alone. Child who lives from his/her parents separately can become a victim of any crime or is violate of child rights as someone. In last case, what’s registration and where does child live is crucial issue, because of parents died or went to abroad for long time. That’s why ac­cording to analyzing to law, child registration and statistical data must be offi­cial information to protect these children [3].

According to result of this study, several conclusions are shown in this part. After reviewing of some legal studies and relevant laws with child registration and right, child’s registration helps to protect child’s rights. So, author of this study results that policy maker and government need to detail do child registra­tion such as permanent and temporary residence registration and legal issue related with movement of population. Also, according to statistical law (article

3) , some official statistical information is created from child registration such as birth registration, death, permanent residence registration, adoption, so child’s registration will be basic information. Accordingly, statistical infor­mation should not be true and correct, thus, these child’s registration is crucial registration and record for both of state and citizens [4]. Based on these child registration and statistical official information, government does organize any event for children’s welfare and rights. Furthermore, analyzing of law such as law of state registration (2015), law of civil registration (1999), law of admin­istration and territory, it’s management (2006) , law of family, and law child protection (2016) author resulted that there need specific articles about child registration in law regulation of above laws. Finally, study of this suggested that Officers who are working for children they should base on child’s registra­tion and household registration to provide child’s rights and to protect them.

References

1. Davaanyam.A . Structure of civil registration organization. Ulaanbataar. 1999. P. 56.

2. Family law of Mongolia. Ulaanbataar.1999. P. 67.

3. General Law of state registration. Ulaanbataar. 2009. P. 23.

4. Law of child protection, Ulaanbataar. 2016 . P. 44.

К ВОПРОСУ ВЗАИМОСВЯЗИ РЕГИСТРАЦИИ РЕБЕНКА В ЗАПИСЯХ ГРАЖДАНСКОГО СОСТОЯНИЯ И ПРАВ РЕБЕНКА НА ПРИМЕРЕ МОНГОЛИИ

Алтанцецег Пуревдулам преподаватель,

Монгольский национальный университет,

Монголия, 14201, г. Улан-Батор, ул. Университетская, 1 E-mail: pvrevdulam@gmail.com

Вопрос о регистрации ребенка не включен в закон о государственной регистрации Монголии. Так, статья 5 закона o государственной регистрации Монголии включает регистрацию рождения ребенка, определение отцовства, усыновление, изменение фамилии (отца / матери), имени, регистрацию смерти, регистрацию постоянного и временного проживания, передвижения людей по стране. В статье дается предположение, что эти виды записей актов гражданского состояния могут быть включены в регистрацию ребенка. Иначе они будут больше связаны с с регистрацией граждан и населения. Исследования проводится с целью подтвердить, что регистрация ребенка через запись гражданского состояния может способствовать защите прав ребенка. В рамках этого исследования была показана взаимосвязь между регистрацией детей и правами ребенка, проанализированы особенности правового регулирования регистрации ребенка и права ребенка.

Ключевые слова: регистрация актов гражданского состояния; ребенок; регистрация детей; права ребенка; правовое регулирование.

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Источник: Коллектив авторов. Десятилетие детства: тенденции и перспективы развития дружественного к ребенку правосудия. Материалы VIМеждународной научно-практической конференции, посвященной 95-летию Верховного суда Республики Бурятия (Улан-Удэ, 19-22 сентября 2018 г.). 2018

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